پایان نامه با واژگان کلیدی تولید ناخالص ملی، توسعهی اقتصادی، تولید ناخالص داخلی، عدالت اجتماعی

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Abstract

In polyhedral human rights system, social-economic law is a body of rights that recognizes the rights to remove any social and economic injustice. It requires state intervention in order to enjoy such rights. The right to development as an incorporated right in legal format of social-economic rights has an outstanding situation because it implies a process mid justice and equity; a process which amounts to realization of each of human rights one by one and in a whole, therefore we can call it right to rights. So, it is necessary to recognize its various dimensions and to examine its practical affects which is dependent on analysis of social-economic formats of international community and conflicts of social-economic powers which draw up the right to development. On the other hand, emerging universal regionalism (north and south, developed countries and developing countries) and universalism and globalization makes the right to development to be blurred. Here, the important question is about the destination of the right to development as main desideratum of third world and developing countries in this new order of international community governing on economic, political, social and legal relations. In this study, at the outset and in the first chapter, we will discuss the conception and the procedure of the right to development evolution. Then in second chapter, we will discuss the definition of the third world and at last, we argue about certainty and enforcement of the right to development considering rules of international economic law in the third world.

Key words: right to development, third world, rules of international economic law, globalization, the United Nations

Ministry of Scince , Researchs and Technology
Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani Institute of Higher Education
Department of Law

A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts (M.A.)
In International Law

Subject
The Right to Development and the Third World, Considering the Rules Of International Economic Law

Supervisor
Dr. Manoochehr Tavassoli Naiini

Advisors
Dr. Alireza Arash Poor

By
Naiemeh
M
otamedian

February 2012

1- آنکتاد
1 – فایدهی شناسایی حق توسعه بهعنوان یک فرآیند اینست که تمام حقوق بشر و آزادیهای اساسی در آن کاملاً قابل تحقق باشد، این رویکرد مبتنی بر حق بشری بودن توسعه است. چنین فرآیند توسعهای از حیث مفهوم ریشه در تحقق انصاف و عدالت اجتماعی دارد. (شایگان، 1388، 24)
3 – برای مثال بژورن هتنه نویسندهی کتاب تئوری توسعه و سه جهان چنین عقیدهای دارد.
2 – برای مطالعهی بیشتر در خصوص مفاهیم توسعه از نظر لفتویک، ن. ک: لفتویک، آدرین، 1384، سیاست و توسعه در جهان سوم، ترجمهی علیرضا خسروی و مهدی میرمحمدی، چاپ اول، تهران، انتشارات مؤسسهی فرهنگی مطالعات و تحقیقات ابرار معاصر تهران، صص61-40.
1 – البته باید توجه داشت که منظور از توسعهی سیاسی در این نوشتار، همان توسعه با توجه به رویکرد سیاسی آن میباشد.
2 – Gunnar Myrdal
3 – Samuel Huntington
4 – برای آگاهی از تمام مواردی که بژورن هتنه در حوزهی توسعهی اقتصادی مورد مطالعه قرار میدهد، ن. ک: هتنه، بژورن، 1388، تئوری توسعه و سه جهان، ترجمهی احمد موثقی، چاپ دوم، تهران، نشر قومس، ص13.
9 – Amartya Kumar Sen
10 – Attwood
3 – Alwyn Rouyer
1 – براساس تعریف اتحادیهی اروپا: “حکمرانی‏ خوب، مدیریت شفاف و پاسخگوی منابع در یک کشور با هدف تضمین توسعهی اقتصادی و اجتماعی‏ عادلانه و پایدار است.” (هداوند، 1384، 79)
2 – Good Governance
1 – شاخصهای مهم توسعه با رویکرد اقتصادی بهقرار زیرند: تولید ناخالص ملی، تولید ناخالص داخلی، تولید ناخالص ملی سرانه، رشد تولید ناخالص ملی سرانه، مصرف انرژی، رشد صادرات، رشد واردات، نسبت صادرات به واردات، تراز بازرگانی، حجم تولیدات صنعتی، سهم بخش صنعتی از تولید ناخالص داخلی(یا از صادرات)، تراز پرداختها، سرمایه‏گذاری مستقیم خارجی خالص، کل بدهی خارجی به صورت درصدی از تولید ناخالص ملی، کل کمکهای خارجی توسعه بصورت درصدی از تولید ناخالص ملی، نرخهای کار خارج از بخش کشاورزی، سطح بیکاری و کمکاری. (لطفیان، 1372، 164)
2 – البته باید توجه داشت که منظور از توسعهی اقتصادی در این نوشتار، همان توسعه با توجه به رویکرد اقتصادی آن میباشد.
16 – برای مطالعهی بیشتر در رابطه با تقسیمبندی تودارو، ن. ک: تودارو، مایکل، 1389، توسعهی اقتصادی در جهان سوم، ترجمهی غلامعلی فرجادی، چاپ هفدهم، تهران، انتشارات کوهسار، صص81-74.
4 – Rostow
1 – دکتر عظیمی را به حق “پدیدهی توسعهی ایران” مینامند . (بینام، 1384، 7)
19 – مادهی 28 اعلام میدارد که: “هرکس حق

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